Building Bridges Between Different Practices & Traditions of Witchcraft
By Thorn NightWind
Horsa Tradition & Sacred Pentagraph Tradition
“The most unexplained fact about witchcraft today is that it is a religion with a serious schismatic problem; there are almost as many causes for dissension here as in the Protestant faith.”
-Sybil Leek, 1971.
One of the most extraordinary things about Doreen Valiente that I strongly admire, respect and feel a similar attitude towards is the amount of bridges that she attempted to build in her lifetime between diverse and differing practices of Witchcraft.
Building bridges within a community in which all folks have very fervent and strong beliefs is not an easy task when it can be easier to point out all of our differences, rather than our similarities. What I mean by “bridge building” is it doesn’t seem to me that Doreen set out her path as a witch looking to create, invent or start new traditions of Witchcraft; instead, her aim seemed to re-vitalize and support already existing traditions in whatever way she could.
In America during the 1960s and even in our current day, one of the biggest trends in Witchcraft is forging your own path, which means, many times, not passing on the traditions of Witchcraft you’ve been brought into, but the creation of something generic. Many times, this means that whole lines of teaching frequently die out or sadly lost to the mists of time by our “Do It Yourself” attitude, which as I know, is uniquely an American phenomenon. While this may be described by some to be just the evolution of Witchcraft practice, it is in some instances actual spiritual extinction and creates a rift in our spiritual environments, just as species-extinction in our animal and insect kingdom creates damage in our physical earth’s environment.
Extinction is not evolution! Traditions can evolve genuinely when the root of the tree is engaged with the newest branches of the tree. Those branches, when strengthened by the the trunk and the roots that they are connected to, grow ever stronger and evolve as long as they are not completely severed from the its trunk. Evolution, such as cross-pollination with the same or other species also continues to help the ability to thrive. Even if practices between witches are different, and we have come to find out that separate trees in a forest really aren’t separate but are all connected to each other through an underground network of fungi that helps a forest communicate to each other – similar and other tree species alike. As witches, our underground connection is the astral matrix, known as the elementals – which as we know, the elementals are the nervous system of the astral plane. Witches practice and work to master practical magic, so if we put this plainly, we all rely on the same type of assistance of the astral nervous system and the formless forms of force of that system, the elementals, regardless of our coven or tradition, yet we all act like feudal districts with a hostile enemy forces just beyond the boundaries of our own self-created walls designed to keep others out.
Though, this does not mean you should never leave a coven or group should it not be for you. Some covens or networks of covens do exist out there only to keep control and boost the egos within the highest ranks of their self-appointed hierarchy. The scary thing about this is, it is so much easier to join a new group than it is to leave it. (Read that last statement a second time, please!)
“The scary thing about this is, it is so much easier to join a new group than it is to leave it.”
Internet slang such as “FOMO” (fear of missing out) and not being able to sit at the “cool kids table” seems to be a biggest reason witches won’t leave controlling groups. We must be discerning of all groups we join – it is important. Religious cults, though for a time seem well-meaning; love pyramid schemes of hierarchy and control. Vote with your feet!
From my own outside perspective on reading the experiences Doreen has shared in her many books, she seems to have not only experienced this herself, she showed us that she was not afraid to vote with her feet when that was the only option left to take was to leave because rationality and logic couldn’t make headway. She did in fact walk away from others who tried to control her. (Remember her story of how she walked away from Gerald when he introduced the “Old Laws” that all must follow but him, and also how she walked away from Cochrane when his antics of secret battles of the “Long Knives” became too much?) This should show you that there are no taboos about leaving groups. You will be fine. Yes, you may be gossiped about and be made into a bogey-man bad guy when you are frequently discussed by them, but in reality, that only shows that your presence leaving was more important to their personal egos, rather than to their authentic desire to have you around. (Aka…. “you were more useful to them than you know!”)
Furthermore even in the midst of all of this, even when drama occurred, Doreen seemed to be someone who was just as passionate as ever and continued to encourage the importance of passing on the traditional, tried and true methods that she had been given or had discovered in collaboration with others. At the same time, my observation from reading her writings gives me the impression she didn’t allow that to stop her from making new discoveries on her own and fresh perspectives on those older, Traditional practice. It seems to me that she added to practice and tradition, organically, rather than throwing tradition out completely and starting new again, and only walking away when methods of control seemed to border on cult-like behavior (“Night of Long Knives” – see chapter “Robert Cochrane, Magister” from Doreen’s “Rebirth of Witchcraft”) or by deception. (See chapter “Fleet Street Attacks” from Doreen’s “Rebirth of Witchcraft” and also her account of Gerald Imposing the “Old Laws” in which an old High Priestess must step down in favor of a younger one, which many have opined could have been Gerald’s way of trying to passive-aggressively push her out of leadership instead of just telling her he didn’t want to work with her)
As someone who never knew Doreen other than through her amazing writings and well-loved books and poetry, I seem to pull quite a well-Balanced vibe from her when it comes to practical application and outlook.
Witchcraft can attract people who have so many types of ideas, including some that are very altruistic, some impractical and some even most fanciful. In the midst of all of that, we find here a woman, Doreen, who was always open minded to information she may not have come across before, a woman who openly accepts multiple ways of carrying out the implementation aspects of Witchcraft practice and lastly a willingness to show how her opinions and perspectives have changed over the years when additional information is available. These three things being taken up in unison, and at the same time, and working tirelessly to preserve truth and practice shows a remarkable amount of Humility within her.
Looking at my first observation, it is clear from her well-cherished writings on Witchcraft, including the newer versions lovingly preserved by the Centre For Pagan Studies & the Doreen Valiente Foundation, that she had so many amazing experiences and influences with various traditions and forms of Witchcraft. I also find it most fascinating to read the histories about such trailblazers, like Doreen, who might be best known for certain ideas that are most impactful on others, but do not seem as impactful on themselves in personal practice.
In the U.S., most practitioners of Witchcraft who have read many published works on modern day Witchcraft are very familiar with seeing many versions of Doreen’s poetry that have been re-printed hundreds of times. Doreen became well known for her short time working with Gerald Gardner and his coven. The work from that period includes her well-loved revisions of “The Charge of the Goddess” (formally called by Gerald Gardner, “Lifting the Veil”) and many circle dances like “The Witches Rune”. Over the years, many people here in the U.S. have used many versions of these writings and have found that they work very well for them, and I get the outsider impression that Doreen would have been more than pleased that people found such joy and insight across the pond at adapting them for their own personal use.
The interesting thing about the poetry that she wrote, and at sometimes modified during her time in Gerald Gardner’s coven, is that while some of those seem to be her best known writings, as an outsider and admirer of her books and work, it seems that the modifications she made at that time for Gerald’s “Book of Shadows” do not seem to be the most influential parts of her own personal Occult work. Yes, she worked with Gerald for a very short time and even though they had their differences and never worked together again after that, she says in “Rebirth” that they had patched their ruffled feathers, but all of that really seems to be a very short time compared to the decades of work she performed with other practices and contacts that she had in Witchcraft from the impression that I get.
I saw this play out first in her wonderful book, “Witchcraft for Tomorrow.” In the back of the book, Doreen leaves us with a new grimoire detailing practices that can be used by covens or even solitaries alike that she calls “Liber Umbrarum, A Book of Shadows.”
In her “Liber Umbrarum,” you can clearly see how important these practices were to her and it would not surprise me if someone who was close to her tell me this working grimoire probably meant a great deal to her. Though, like many witches, I can guess she had up her sleeve probably other personal grimoires shown to no one. But what seems to be important here is the influence in this grimoire or set of ritual practices is clearly most heavily inspired by her training, initiation into and work with the “Atho Coven” that Doreen is said to have joined and was initiated into.
The Atho Coven, or Coven of Atho, had a unique way of carrying out ritual and magic that was different than what was practiced by Gerald Gardner’s methods, and some of the wording in that practice has entered not only a wider practice of Witchcraft, but even pop culture!
Probably one of my favorite little ritual pieces in Doreen Valiente’s Liber Umbrarum found in “Witchcraft for Tomorrow” is the words:
“I call Earth to bind my spell.
Air to speed its travel well.
Bright as Fire shall it glow.
Deep as tide of Water flow.”
With these particular words, Doreen is teaching us how to prepare the magical knife for the casting of the magical circle which will follow this. This practice must have been well-loved by Doreen Valiente, as it came from the Atho Coven and was adapted by her. This little rhyme was indeed one of the practices and teachings used in the Atho Coven with the magical sword before cutting a magical circle outdoors. It was a simple little ritual that looks quite dramatic in nature when performed outdoors! Doreen seems to have adapted her version to be held at an altar indoors.
These words have been found in many other writings and published works too, and Doreen’s book isn’t actually the very first place I have came across this, which will show you how widespread the practice is, and even at times, shows you how easy it can be to accidentally attribute magical incantations and practices to someone else by mistake! For example, one of the first places I have seen this line is in “The Holy Book of Women’s Mysteries, Volume I” which was written by Zsuzsanna Budapest.
In her book, she describes how to perform Candle Magic and attributes the spell and the wording to Sybil Leek. While Sybil Leek did practice candle magic in a similar vein that Budapest describes, the wording for the Incantation was not penned by Sybil Leek, though it is possible that Sybil pointed it out to her from the popular U.S. publication titled “The Grimoire of Lady Sheba” that has remained very popular in the U.S. and probably assisted more bootstrap covens to come about than we will ever know, and then the whole thing being attributed to Sybil whole cloth. The wording of the Incantation she accidentally attributes to Sybil goes like this:
“Upon this candle I will write
What I receive of thee tonight.
Grant what I wish you to do,
I dedicate this rite to you.
I trust that you will grant this boon,
O lovely Goddess of the Moon.
I call earth to bond my spell,
Air speed its travel well.
Fire give it Spirit from above,
Water quench my spell with love.
So mote it be!”
See how similar that last part is to what Doreen published as well, though, the words are used in a different way?
This above spell can be found in the Candle Magic section of Lady Sheba’s published grimoire titled, “The Grimoire of Lady Sheba, The Magick Workbook of America’s Witch Queen,” first published in 1972. It was this book where I first came across this little Incantation without knowing the last part of it being sourced back to the Atho Coven.
Interestingly, Doreen must have had a chance to read this book by Budapest, because in her later book, “The Rebirth of Witchcraft,” at the end of the chapter titled “Working with Gerald” she talks about the history of re-writing the “Charge of the Goddess.” The chapter ends with the following statement that, for the well-read witch, knows it is in reference to Budapest’s “Holy Book of Women’s Mysteries.” Doreen wrote in reference to her versions of The Charge:
“Just recently I was very amused to find something evidently based upon them printed in an American book on witchcraft, in which they were attributed to the late Sybil Leek!”
That is because the “Yule: Winter Solstice (December 21)” ritual listed in Budapest’s book not only attributes Doreen’s “Prose Charge” to Sybil, but also the “Queen of the Moon” invocation that Doreen adapted from the writings of the Carmena Gadelica to her too.
Doreen would have known the truth right away and knew that this would be something that Sybil would have been the first to admit she didn’t write, but, as we know, when it came to publishing at the time, we didn’t have the fast ability to research back then like we do today. Today when I give other witches a spell to do, I am careful to tell them right away if this spell is one that I wrote myself or if it was taught to me by someone else, or if it came from a particular book. This serves multiple purposes, but the main one being to prevent this type of confusion – if only to make sure people are aware that just because I pass a particular teaching on, doesn’t mean it came from me or the tradition(s) I am initiated into. Just because you try your own hand at a particular spell or ritual doesn’t mean it’s representative of your own particular tradition or initiations! Witches love to experiment – and that experimentation at times takes them outside of their own established covens to try new practices. Just for example, Doreen’s books are filled with new methods that she explored, though, may not have learned directly from folks she worked at coven with.
Doreen was acquainted with and on good terms with Sybil Leek, and even appeared on television with her in the “Circles of Power” program. Sybil was already well known for her antique shops and her appearances in the media working for “Southern Television” so she was not shy of the cameras one bit since she was already serving as a journalist. Doreen said in her book, “Rebirth of Witchcraft”, that… “I treasure a photograph from this film showing Sybil conducting a ritual, her arms raised in Invocation.” Also adding that, “We missed Sybil when she left permanently for the USA….”
On the other hand, one of Sybil Leek’s popular books on witchcraft, “The Complete Art of Witchcraft,” which was one of the best-selling books on witchcraft practice of all time (and even to this day), promoted Doreen’s “Charge is the Goddess.” Sybil’s Book, first published in 1971, was one of the earliest published works to print in full the complete Charge. Sybil said in her book the following about it:
“One help toward understanding basic witchcraft is the Charge, which is generally spoken by the high priestess to initiates. To me, it is a pleasant piece of down-to-earth philosophy.”
This was ground-breaking indeed, because this was one of the first mass-published and international best-sellers on witchcraft to be printed all over the world in an abundance of languages. For example, many interested parties to witchcraft in Spanish-speaking countries were introduced to Doreen’s wordsmithing for the very first time.
Another indication that Doreen was very interesting in building bridges is that in 1963/1964 when Sybil Leek resigned from the presidency of the W.R.A. (The Witchcraft Research Association), the Presidency was carried on by Doreen Valiente.
The WRA published a few newsletters that are still treasured by many witches and they also held the now famous dinner discussed by many who attended it, such as Doreen Valiente, Bill Gray & Patricia Crowther; in which Doreen continued the charge at trying to create a type of what Sybil Leek previously described as a “United Nations of Witchcraft” regardless if you were practicing in Gerald Gardner’s style of Witchcraft or were practicing more so in a Traditional Witchcraft style. (As a side note – i am still hopeful someday this vision will become a reality in that folks of varying practices will be able to come together peacefully and work harmoniously with each other, regardless of our differences of practice and opinion!)
Doreen Valiente’s “Liber Umbrarum” would go on to reach more Americans that her “Charge of the Goddess” or her “Witches Rune” ever would through a particularly well-loved pop-culture television series, even though the average American viewer probably never knew who wrote the now famous words to the invocations used!
That’s right, I’m talking none other than the television show series known as “Charmed” which premiered in U.S. on the WB for eight seasons from 1998 and ended 2006.
The series itself was based on a story of three witch sisters (and later a fourth) living in San Francisco and just coming to terms with their own supernatural witchy powers and fighting the forces of darkness by use of potions, spell-casting and sisterly love and still having a modern life.
According to Wikipedia (link to article below), the season premiere of Charmed on the WB was titled “Something Wicked this Way Comes” and had a total audience that night of 7.7 million viewers, which broke the record for the WB’s highest rated debut episode! In that episode, yes, on debut night, 7.7 million viewers got to hear Witchcraft Liturgy from Valiente’s “Witchcraft for Tomorrow” on this episode and many, many other episodes to come throughout the series.
For example, on that episode and many other episodes, the witches obtained their magical powers that they had a right to since birth by reading from the “Book of Shadows” a magical invocation titled “To Call Forth a Witch’s Powers.” This Invocation/spell is a small edit from Doreen Valiente’s “Witchcraft for Tomorrow” and pulls various lines from her poem to be used at Sabbat rituals titled “The Witches’ Creed.” For example, the first two likes of The Witches’ Creed were used in the spell on Charmed:
“Hear now the words of the witches,
The secrets we hid in the night,…”
And also, the last two lines of the ninth paragraph of the Creed followed:
“The oldest of Gods are invoked (here) there,
The Great Work of Magic is wrought…”
This invocation/spell, with its alternations made to it, was probably repeated in various episodes throughout each of the eight seasons. How many others out there knew this was Doreen’s poetry having such a profound influence on American culture?
In another episode of Charmed, and I forget which season it was, there was a scene with a group of witches closing down a ritual circle and the lady running the ritual ended the ritual with speaking the third paragraph of “Witches Creed” which when I first heard it knew immediately it’s source:
“The birth and rebirth of all nature,
The passing of winter and spring,
We share in the life universal,
Rejoice in the magical ring.”
The producers of Charmed most definitely did their homework for the television show, and utilized some great lines from Doreen’s works. Many of the names of demons the witches fought could also be found through research going back to “The Goetia, the Lesser Key of Solomon.”
Doreen’s book, “Witchcraft for Tomorrow,” was certainly a good book to use for research into the television series and to also reflect some of the growing trends in America.
For example, this book by Doreen was well-known to be one of the earlier books that popularly instructed witches how to perform a “Self-Initiation” into the Craft, which is a topic that still spars strong opinions to this day, either for or against the idea.
The ritual for self-initiation is the second set of instructions found in her Liber Umbrarum. Doreen instructions the candidate to perform the ritual totally nude, but wearing magical jewelry that is meaningful to you. You then begin by performing an Invocation using a particular word of power, performing a self-anointing and an invocation to awaken the witches powers within you. The ritual itself ends with a statement of affirmation and a ritual dance.
Another fascinating book that Doreen worked in collaboration with another author and former coven-mate of hers on was the book “Witchcraft, A Tradition Renewed” by Doreen Valiente & Evan Jones.
When reading this excellent book by Valiente & Jones, not only do we get to read more beautiful poetry by Doreen, but you get another glimpse into another of Doreen’s passions in Witchcraft, which was her work with Robert Cochrane’s coven and her coven-mate who was the main author of the book, Evan Jones.
Evan & Doreen give various rituals in the book that can be used like a formula, but is also very clear to the reader that most of Cochrane’s rituals were spontaneous and did not come from a “Book of Shadows” but were typically improvised as needed.
In the preface of the book, Doreen makes her feelings clear about folks like Robert Cochrane. The way she describes him is remarkable. While she makes no bones about some of the more mischievous aspects of Cochrane in her “Rebirth of Witchcraft,” she is quick to not only tell you how he “had something”, was “no charlatan” and even calling him a “remarkable young man.” While Valiente did defend some of Gerald Gardner’s claims at times, I don’t think I have personally seen her describe another person in Witchcraft she personally did ritual with (Gardner, Cochrane or the folks of Atho Coven) with as much praise as she does for Cochrane. (Though, I must admit my access and knowledge is limited only to the published books she has written. She did have many private diaries and journals which may tell more details that I am not privy to.)
This book also shows the influence of another occultist that had an impact, not only on Jones & Valiente, but also on Cochrane as well. That influence would be none other than William G. Gray!
Not only is some of Gray’s remarkable liturgy present in the book, you can also find Gray’s influence all through it, even including the four Sabbat ritual scripts which were clearly inspired by Bill Gray’s work.
Even though Bill Gray wasn’t a witch himself, it isn’t surprising that Bill Gray would pop-up in writings by folks involved in Traditional Witchcraft, such as in Valiente & Jones’s book. It seems Bill Gray got on quite well with other witches and was even at the infamous Witchcraft Research Association Dinner.
A “Meal Prayer” which was written by Bill Gray was used at the WRA dinner in 1964 and then published in Pentagram magazine. After that, a number of witches began to add this prayer to their own secret grimoire and “Books of Shadows” as if it was oathbound material! Some witches, including Lady Sheba, even included it in her “Grimoire of Lady Sheba” and labeled it as the “Ancient Wiccan Grace.” I guess 1964 is a lot more ancient than it used to be!
Another fascinating piece of writing written by Bill Gray that is mislabeled by some is his piece called “The Summons to the Sabbat” which was part of Gray’s book formerly titled “The Rollright Ritual.” (My later 1990 U.S. edition copy is called “By Standing Stone & Elder Tree.”) This “Summons” typically begins with the words:
“Ye shall come through brake and fen,
Ye shall come through thorn or forest….”
Overall, I think it is pretty clear that as you can see, Doreen worked with a vast number of covens and traditions of Witchcraft and I get the understanding from her writings that she never set out to create “her own branch” of Witchcraft, but to perpetuate the “Old Ways.” She didn’t perpetuate the Old Ways by creating a brand new “Valentinian” tradition when she didn’t find what she was looking for, but simply added to the branches of the already existing traditions so that information of the past would not be lost, and a new understanding on Old practice could be interpreted. She was humble enough to be initiated by others and learn from them rather than always having the “need” to be the ultimate authority. Thankfully today, there are no “Valientian” branches of Witchcraft. There are covens out there that practice Witchcraft from Doreen’s “Witchcraft for Tomorrow” Book but I have never heard one person who does say that their practice is part of the “Valentinan Tradition.”
I know it is not my place to say this, and I say this with no authority other than that as a reader of her many works that she promoted the idea that “Witchcraft is Witchcraft” and that there are many undiscovered mysteries within old practice to probe, discover, test and come to your own conclusions on!
Another well-loved book by Doreen that I haven’t mentioned yet is her book “Natural Magic.” From most folks that I have talked to that have read all of Doreen’s books, this book along with with “Witchcraft for Tomorrow” seem to be her fan favorites in the U.S.!
Lastly, to end this article, I want to share with you my own discovery of how I first came to discover the writings of Doreen Valiente….
At the time of discovering Doreen’s writings, I was still a high school student at the age of 16 and had been studying witchcraft for a number of years by now. I had my first introduction into witchcraft when my eldest Aunt taught me my first charm when I was still in my pre-teen years. Since that time, I had been reading as many good and old books on witchcraft as I could obtain, but in America, while Doreen Valiente was known by practitioners of coven based Wicca, her books and those by Gerald Gardner were never the huge sellers and little was known by the everyday American that they even existed. Folks like Sybil Leek, who were international celebrities and reached millions of readers, and even books by Raymond Buckland and Gavin & Yvonne Frost were immensely popular. Because of that, it took me until the age of 16 to then discover Doreen’s fantastic work.
Sitting in art class, one of my peers across the table from me who knew I was a practicing witch mentioned to me that her mother wanted her to study all the religions out there to make an informed choice so one of the books her mother bought her was “the ABCs of Witchcraft” and she asked me if I ever heard of it. I told her that I hadn’t, so she offered to bring it into school that week.
The next day, she brought in the book and it sat in the middle of our art table. It was the Phoenix Publishing paperback edition of “An ABC of Witchcraft” by a lady I had never heard of, but the green and black cover with the lady beneath the full moon was alluring. I opened the book and I was stunned at how thick the book was and how many subjects related to Witchcraft could be found! From garters, to hypnosis, to Shakespeare, Stones Circles and even Phallic Worship; it seemed like the amount of articles and material was endless. So much to learn indeed!
Because you couldn’t just find a copy of a book by Doreen Valiente in any Occult section of your everyday bookstore, I looked for it in one of my Occult catalogs I received occasionally in the mail and found it in there, so I knew it would be available.
The next week, I went down to my local bookstore, which did have an Occult section, and requested they order me a copy of the book. When it arrived a few weeks later and I drove over to pick it up, I was overjoyed. When I learned Doreen had written others, it wasn’t too long before I requested copies of “Witchcraft for Tomorrow” and “Natural Magic” to be ordered for me.
I also was fascinated by the way she wrote her magical poetry to be used in ritual. When I first started to read a number of ritual pieces, such as her “Witches Rune” in published books, I noticed most of them had a musical rhythm of 7. This was fascinating to me, because I had always been a student of the seven great archangels. I then noticed if I just changed the way I chanted it, the “Witches Rune” sounded a lot like “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star” which also had a musical rhythm of 7. This was indeed fascinating and gave me a new found appreciation for Doreen. As we know, many folk songs do in fact contain elements of the Ancient Wisdom Religion, and Doreen’s use of a magical rhythm of 7 matches with that same theme as well.
To this day, if there is a particular topic related to the study of witchcraft that I don’t know much info about, I will still first flip open my old and worn copy of “An ABC of Witchcraft” to humbly learn at the hem of a remarkable women who seemed to not only build bridges of practice with so many other occultists and witches who were so vastly different from each other, who had no interest in bootstrapping her own following/tradition for the sake of name recognition and instead, worked tirelessly to preserve old Craft lore and discover the hidden mysteries. I never fail to learn something from the writings of Doreen and for that, I am truly thankful and also truly thankful for the honor to have this piece included for the 20th anniversary of her graduation to her next incarnation.
Bibliography & Works Cited:
Budapest, Zsuzsanna. The Holy Book of Women’s Mysteries, Volume I. 1979. Print.
Charmed. American Television Series, https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charmed Online Web Article.
Gray, William G. By Standing Stone & Elder Tree – Ritual and the Unconscious. Llewellyn Publications. 1990. Print.
Leek, Sybil. The Complete Art of Witchcraft. World Publishing – Times Mirror, 1971. Print.
Sheba, Lady. The Grimoire of Lady Sheba, Llewellyn Publications. 1972. Print.
Valiente, Doreen. An ABC of Witchcraft. Phoenix Publishing, 1973. Print.
Valiente, Doreen. Natural Magic. Robert Hale, 1975. Print.
Valiente, Doreen. The Rebirth of Witchcraft, Phoenix Publishing, 1989. Print.
Valiente, Doreen & Jones, Evan. Witchcraft, A Tradition Renewed, Phoenix Publishing, 1990. Print.
Valiente, Doreen. Witchcraft for Tomorrow, Robert Hale. 1978. Print.